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Lost Art


Chronology

1938Münchner Abkommen (PDF, 61 KB) (Munich Agreement) — Division of Czechoslovakia, annexation of the Sudetenland by the Deutsche Reich. Of September 29, 1938
1939Non-aggression pact between Germany and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics. Of August 23, 1939
04/1942“Richtlinien zur Sicherung von Bibliotheksgut vor Luftangriffen” (Guidelines for securing library material from air attacks)—advisory for libraries in the Deutsche Reich
05/1942Order an die Reichsbahndirektionen [...], die Beförderung von Kunstwerken betreffend (Directive to the Reich railway directorates [...], regarding transporting of artworks). Of May 23, 1942
Abbeförderung von Kunstwerken (PDF, 617 KB) (Transport of artworks)
(Directive concerning the use of motor vehicles for protecting works of art from air attacks). Of May 26, 1942
Einsatz von Nutzkraftfahrzeugen für den Luftschutz von Kunstwerken (PDF, 1 MB) (Use of motor vehicles for the protection of works of art)
11/1942Establishment of the “Staatlichen Sonderkommission zur Registrierung und Untersuchung von Verbrechen und Zerstörungen durch die faschistische deutsche Besatzungsmacht und deren Verbündete, begangen an Bürgern, Kolchosen, öffentlichen Einrichtungen, Staatsbetrieben und Organen der UdSSR“ (State commission for the registration and investigation of crimes and destruction by the Fascist German occupying force and its allies, perpetrated upon the citizens, collectives, public institutions, state operations and official entities of the USSR)
1943Inter-Allied Declaration against Acts of Dispossession committed in Territories under Enemy Occupation or Control—Declaration by the Allied Forces that allowed ownership transactions under enemy occupation to be annulled. Of January 5, 1943
Inter-Allied Declaration (PDF, 61 KB) (engl.)
Foundation of the “Gosfond Literatury” (State Fund for Literature) in Moscow—Goal: Recovery of losses of Soviet libraries
1944Report on the registration of works of art in German museums, which were intended for relocation to the USSR as compensation for losses from Soviet museums
1945-1947Confiscation and relocation of a large number of cultural artifacts to the Soviet Union by the Red Army
01/1945Order by the Reichsstatthalter of Saxony, Martin Mutschmann, to move all artworks stored east of the Elbe to storage locations west of the Elbe. Of January 19, 1945
02/1945Founding of the Soviet “Special Committee for Germany”—confiscation of valuables in the occupied regions
03/1945Order by Hitler to immediately evacuate all art treasures from Berlin and relocate cultural artifacts stored in the east to the west. Of March 6, 1945
08.05.1945End of the war
06/1945Declaration in light of the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority over Germany by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, and the temporary government of the Republic of France (Berlin Declaration). Of June 5, 1945
Berliner Erklärung (PDF, 116 KB) (Berlin Declaration)
10/1945Order no. 124 of the Soviet Military Administration—basis for access to German works of art. Of October 30, 1945
11/1945Wiesbadener Manifest (PDF, 47 KB) (engl.) — declaration of American art protection officers against relocation of art treasures from German museums to the United States
1946Order no. 177 of the Soviet Military Administration—return of all works of art from recovery depots ordered. Of June 18, 1946
1947Return of roughly 500,000 Soviet art objects from the American Collecting Points to the Red Army
1949Transfer of works of art stored in American and French occupied zones to the German trust administration
1954Haager Konvention zum Schutz von Kulturgut bei bewaffneten Konflikten. The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Of May 14, 1954
03/1955Declaration by the Cabinet of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics on returning paintings to Dresden Gallery. Of March 31, 1955
10/1955Special rail transport with objects of from the Dresden Gemäldegalerie reaches Berlin. Of October 16, 1955
1956Agreement between the government of the German Democratic Republic and the government of the USSR on cultural and academic cooperation. Of April 26, 1956
1957Agreement on the mutual return of cultural artifacts between the Soviet Union and the government of the German Democratic Republic. Of January 8, 1957
1958Start of negotiations between the Russian Vice Minister of Cultural Affairs Nikolai Danilow and a delegation by the Cultural Ministry of the German Democratic Republic about the return of German works of art. Of June 25, 1958
09/1958-01/1959Largest return initiative (total of 17 transfers) of cultural artifacts removed during the war from the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics to the German Democratic Republic—for instance to museums, libraries and archives in Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, Potsdam, Schwerin, Dessau, and Gotha
1967Gesetz zu der Konvention vom 14. Mai 1954 zum Schutz von Kulturgut bei bewaffneten Konflikten (KultgSchKonvG). (Law on the Convention of May 14, 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict). Of April 11, 1967
1970Übereinkommen über Maßnahmen zum Verbot und zur Verhütung der unzulässigen Einfuhr, Ausfuhr und Übereignung von Kulturgut. Agreement on measures to prohibit and prevent the unlawful import, export and transfer of cultural artifacts. Of November 14, 1970
1990Vertrag über gute Nachbarschaft, Partnerschaft und Zusammenarbeit zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Union der Sozialistischen Sowjetrepubliken (PDF, 316 KB). (Contract on good relations, partnership and cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Of November 9, 1990
1991Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Republik Polen über gute Nachbarschaft und freundschaftliche Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 126 KB). (Contract between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Poland on good relations and friendly cooperation). Of June 17, 1991
1992Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Russischen Föderation über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 1 MB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Russian Federation on cultural cooperation). Of December 16, 1992
02/1993Joint conference of the government commissions of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Russian Federation on the return of cultural artifacts in Dresden on February 9 to 10, 1993
(Dresdner Protokoll (PDF, 1 MB))
Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Ukraine über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 1,023 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of Ukraine on cultural cooperation). Of February 15, 1993
03/1993Richtlinie 93/7/EWG des Rates über die Rückgabe von unrechtmäßig aus dem Hoheitsgebiet eines Mitgliedstaats verbrachten Kulturgütern (PDF, 1 MB). (Guideline 93/7/EWG of the council on the return of cultural artifacts unlawfully removed from the territory of one of the member states). Of March 15, 1993
04/1993Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Lettland über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 315 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Latvia on cultural cooperation). Of April 20, 1993
Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Usbekistan über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 321 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan on cultural cooperation). Of April 28, 1993
06/1993Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Georgien über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 298 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Georgia on cultural cooperation). Of June 25, 1993
08/1993Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Kirgisischen Republik über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 44 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Kyrgyz Republic on cultural cooperation). Of August 23, 1993
12/1993Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Estland über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 435 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Estonia on cultural cooperation). Of December 29, 1993
03/1994Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Belarus über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 341 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Belarus on cultural cooperation). Of March 3, 1994
1st meeting of the joint German-Russian commission on the mutual return of cultural artifacts of March 23 to 24, 1994 in Moscow
Moskauer Protokoll (PDF, 2 MB)
06/19942nd meeting of the joint German-Russian commission on the mutual return of cultural artifacts of June 29 to 30, 1994 in Bonn
Bonner Protokoll (PDF, 1 MB)
12/1994Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Kasachstan über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 294 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on cultural cooperation). Of December 16, 1994
08/1995Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Tadschikistan über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 1 MB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Tadzhikstan on cultural cooperation). Of August 22, 1995
10/1995Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Moldau über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 482 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Moldova on cultural cooperation). Of October 11, 1995
12/1995Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Republik Armenien über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 279 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Armenia on cultural cooperation). Of December 21, 1995
Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung der Aserbaidschanischen Republik über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 301 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Republic of Azerbaijan on cultural cooperation). Of December 22, 1995
1997Abkommen zwischen der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Regierung von Turkmenistan über kulturelle Zusammenarbeit (PDF, 288 KB). (Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of Turkmenistan on cultural cooperation). Of August 28, 1997
1998Federal law of the Russian Federation on cultural artifacts relocated to the USSR as a result of World War II and remaining in the territory of the Russian Federation. Of April 15, 1998
Beutekunstgesetz (PDF, 9 MB) (Looted art law)

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